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Post-operation Pain Management

Drug Class: Commonly Known As: Category:

Post-operation Pain Management - What is it for


CategoriesExample of Medications Indication Precautions/Contraindications
Non-opioid analgesics
Paracetamol and its combination products

Paracetamol (Panadol®)


Mild to moderate Pain
  • Existing Liver Condition

Paracetamol and Codeine



Moderate Pain
  • Existing Liver Condition
  • Not recommended to use in <18 years old

Paracetamol and Orphenadrine



Pain with muscle relaxant effect
  • Existing Liver Condition
  • Glaucoma
  • Prostate Problem

NSAID (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory)


1. Non-Selective NSAIDs


Ibuprofen, Naproxen, Ketoprofen, Mefenamic Acid, etc




Pain associated with inflammation

  • History of NSAIDs allergy
  • Uncontrolled asthma
  • History of cardiovascular (heart) events
  • Poor kidney function
  • Recent stomach ulceration or bleed


2. COX-2 Selective NSAIDs


Celecoxib (Celebrex®), Etoricoxib (Arcoxia®)


GABA Analog

Gabapentin, Pregabalin (Lyrica®)


  • Drowsiness
  • Dizziness
  • Poor kidney function
Weak opioid

Tramadol, Codeine       


Moderate Pain
  • Risk of dependence
  • Drowsiness
  • Constipation
  • Poor kidney function
Strong opioid

Morphine, Fentanyl, Oxycodone, Pethidine


Severe Pain


For more information click here to read more on opioids

Post-operation Pain Management - Side Effects, Precautions, and Contraindications

What side effects can Post-operation Pain Management cause?

Before taking Post-operation Pain Management , what precautions must I follow?

What food or medicine must I avoid when I take Post-operation Pain Management ?

Post-operation Pain Management - Dosage and How to Use

How should Post-operation Pain Management be used?

  • Initially when the pain is constantly experienced, you may regularly take the pain medicine corresponding to the severity of pain that you experience
  • As the wound heals, the frequency and severity of pain experienced would reduce as well. Hence you may then take the pain relief medicine only as and when needed.
  • If the pain is still unrelieved after one hour of taking the medicine, you may add another pain medicine belonging to a different category.
  • Always ask your pharmacist or doctor on how to manage your pain if you are unsure about the frequency of taking or even the indication for each pain medication.

What should I do if I miss a dose?

What should I do if I overdose?

Post-operation Pain Management - Handling

How should I handle Post-operation Pain Management safely?

Post-operation Pain Management - Storage

How should I store Post-operation Pain Management ?

;#Keep away from children;#Keep in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight;#Store at room temperature;#

How should I dispose of Post-operation Pain Management safely?

Post-operation Pain Management - Additional Information

​For more information, can click to read more on Opioids.

What is post-operation pain management ?

After an operation, pain is usually experienced due to damage to the tissues and nerves. The pain is usually more severe initially and resolves over time as the wound recovers. Unrelieved pain can interfere with sleep and physical functioning that can negatively affect patient's well-being on multiple levels. Hence doctors will always prescribe medicine to manage pain so as to minimise any discomfort that the patient may experience during recovery. Analgesics act by different mechanism and at different receptor sites can be combined to produce additive or synergistic pain relief and reduce opioid use. They may be available in injectable, topical or oral forms.

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