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Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines

Drug Class: Commonly Known As: Category:
Central Nervous System Agent Children

Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines - What is it for

​Medicine ​How does the medicine work?
​Antispasmodics
e.g. Baclofen
​Helps muscles to relax. This will help your child to move, and make it easier and less painful to move them. It may also help to reduce muscle pain.
​Anticholinergics
e.g. Benzhexol
​In children with dystonia, the muscles have contracted too much and are too tight so that the head, arms or legs are held in awkward or uncomfortable positions. Benzhexol blocks the effects of a chemical messenger called acetylcholine that is released from the nerves to make the muscle contract. It helps the muscles to relax. This should allow a better range of movement in the affected part of the body and reduce painful spasms.

​Benzodiazepines

e.g. diazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam

​Helps to reduce symptoms of spasticity, and other movement disorders such as dystonia, and myoclonus. It modifies the chemical transmission in the brain. It helps your child’s muscles to relax. This should also help to reduce muscle pain.
​Chloral Hydrate​Helps to reduce symptoms of dystonia by modifying the chemical transmission in the brain. It is also used in children with sleep-onset disorder (difficulty getting to sleep), muscle spasm/ dystonia and agitation.
​Clonidine​Helps to reduce symptoms of dystonia by modifying the chemical transmission in the brain. It is also used in children with Tourette’s syndrome, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sleep-onset disorder (difficulty getting to sleep).
​Gabapentin​Helps to reduce symptoms of dystonia by modifying the chemical transmission in the brain. It also helps to reduce muscle pain and neuropathic pain (nerve pain).
​Levodopa
e.g. Madopar 
​Levodopa is absorbed by the brain cells and turned into the chemical dopamine, which is used to transmit messages between the parts of the brain and nerves that control movement. Increasing the levels of dopamine helps to improve movement problems. 

Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines - Side Effects, Precautions, and Contraindications

What side effects can Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines cause?

​We use medicines to make our children better, but sometimes they have other effects that we don’t want (side-effects).

Medicine

Rare but serious side effects​

Seek medical attention immediately if your child has any of these side effects

​Common side effects

If your child have problems with these less serious side effects, talk with your doctor/ pharmacist

Antispasmodics
e.g. Baclofen
  • Seizure (also called a fit or convulsion)
  • ​Excessive sleepiness or difficulty in waking
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Drowsy (sleepy), dizzy
  • Confusion
  • Trouble sleeping or nightmares
  • Constipation
  • Nausea (feeling sick)
  • Difficulty with passing urine
  • If your child’s muscles become too floppy (hypotonic)
  • Emotional, anxious or overactive or may have problems with their memory
​Anticholinergics
e.g. Benzhexol
  • ​Excessive sleepiness or difficulty in waking
  • Difficulty with passing urine, or unable to pass urine
  • ​Drowsy (sleepy), dizzy
  • Blurred vision
  • Constipation, nausea, vomiting
  • Dry mouth
  • Emotional, anxious or overactive or may have problems with their memory.
​Benzodiazepaines,
e.g. Diazepam, Nitrazepam, Clonazepam
  • ​Excessive sleepiness or difficulty in waking
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Skin rash
  • Yellowing of skin or eyes
  • Hallucinations
  • Drowsy (sleepy), dizzy
  • If your child becomes too floppy
  • Difficulty controlling their movements (ataxia) or walking
  • Difficulty talking
  • Salivary drooling
  • Emotional, anxious or overactive or may have problems with their memory 
​Chloral Hydrate
  • ​​Excessive sleepiness or difficulty in waking
  • Breathing difficulty
  • ​Drowsy (sleep), dizzy
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Stomach upset/ heartburn
​Clonidine
  • ​Excessive sleepiness or difficulty in waking​
  • ​​Drowsy (sleepy) or dizzy
  • Dry mouth
  • Constipation
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Headaches
  • Agitation or restlessness at night 
​Gabapentin
  • Excessive sleepiness or difficulty in waking
  • Skin rash
  • ​Drowsy (sleepy), dizzy
  • Unsteadiness
  • Changes in appetite
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • ​Diarrhoea/ constipation, wind, indigestion
  • Dry mouth
  • Emotional, anxious or overactive or may have problems with their memory
​Levodopa
e.g. Madopar​
  • ​​Excessive sleepiness or difficulty in waking
  • ​​Drowsy (sleepy), dizzy
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Stomach upset
  • Dry mouth
  • Emotional, anxious or overactive or may have problems with their memory
  • Chorea (abnormal involuntary movements)


 
There may, sometimes, be other side-effects that are not listed above. If you notice anything unusual and are concerned, please contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Before taking Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines, what precautions must I follow?

What food or medicine must I avoid when I take Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines?

Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines - Dosage and How to Use

How should Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines be used?

Your doctor will instruct you on how much and how often your child should take the medicine. Do not take more of the medicine or take it more often than what the doctor tells your child to. Most medicine can be taken with or without food. Give the medicine at the same time each day.

The medicine starts to work straight away. However, because the dose is usually increased gradually, it may take some weeks before the full effect can be seen.

Do not stop taking the medicine without first checking with the doctor.

What should I do if I miss a dose?

If your child miss a dose, give it as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue with the regular dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to make up for the missed dose.

What should I do if I overdose?

Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines - Handling and Storage

How should I handle Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines safely?

How should I store Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines?

Keep away from children;#Keep in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight;#

How should I dispose of Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines safely?

Complex Motor Disorders - Medicines - Additional Information

​Click here for more information on Baclofen.

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