Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Valvuloplasty (Mitral/ Pulmonary/ Aortic) is a method that may be used to open narrowed cardiac valves (most commonly the tricuspid, pulmonary and mitral valves, and rarely, the aortic valve). The procedure works on valves in a similar way to what balloon angioplasty does for the coronary arteries. A balloon tipped catheter is passed from the femoral vein into the right atrium. From there, it is threaded to the right ventricle and on to the pulmonic valve, or the atrial septum is punctured for access to the mitral or aortic valves. When the balloon is positioned in the valve, a series of inflation-deflation cycles is required to enlarge the narrowing. The aortic valve may also be accessed retrogradely through the femoral artery.
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