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Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media

Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media: Overview, Causes, Risk Factors and More | Singapore General Hospital

Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media - What it is

The middle ear is the space behind the eardrum and is responsible for transmission of sound from the outer to the inner ear. Infection of the middle ear can be acute or chronic.

Acute Otitis Media refers to fluid in the middle ear with signs and symptoms of infection such as pain, fever, bulging eardrum and hearing loss.

Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media - Symptoms

  • Young children tend to tug their ears if they have an ear infection because of the pain and accumulation of fluid in the ear.
  • They may also cry, scream or are generally more irritable.
  • Older children will be able to complain of pain and hearing loss.
  • They will also tend to have fever.

Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media - How to prevent?

It is impossible to prevent middle ear infection totally. However, some useful measures include:

a. Discourage the use of pacifiers as this predisposes the child to middle ear infection. Also avoid letting the child drink while lying flat on his back.

b. Wash hands and clean toys frequently as the viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infections (flu/cold) can be transmitted by contact.

c. Avoid being in a small room with other sick children or adults as respiratory tract infections can also be spread through the air.

d. Breastfeeding is very useful in reducing the number of ear infections. A child should be nursed throughout the first year. Even a few weeks of breastfeeding can result in fewer ear infections.

e. Vaccinate your child with the pneumococcal and flu vaccines as they help in the prevention of ear infections.

f. Treat your child for allergies and avoid exposure to cigarette smoke.

g. Ensure that the child gets sufficient sleep and good nutrition.

Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media - Causes and Risk Factors

Causes of Acute Otitis Media

The middle ear is connected to the back of the nose via a small canal called the eustachian tube. Bacteria can make their way into the middle ear via this canal where they are usually flushed out through the eustachian tube. Both bacteria and virus can infect the middle ear.

A blockage in the canal (usually due to a cold/flu), or when it does not function properly, can lead to germs getting trapped in the middle ear, causing an ear infection.

Children are predisposed to suffer from acute otitis media because of the anatomy and function of their ears and eustachian tube.

Risk Factors of Acute Otitis Media

Children are prone to ear infections because their eustachian canal is smaller and more horizontal. They tend to get more ear infections between 6 to 24 months. They are also more prone to upper respiratory tract infections such as colds and flus.

An ear infection, in itself, is not contagious but the upper respiratory viruses that cause the infection can spread amongst children. Therefore, children in day care are more prone to ear infections. Children who use pacifiers are also at risk.

Other risks factors include immature immune systems and factors that can cause the eustachian canal to be blocked are allergies, acid reflux, or environmental irritants like tobacco smoke.

Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media - Diagnosis

The diagnosis of middle ear infection can be made on the history of symptoms and by examining the ears with an otoscope. The eardrums will be red and bulging in children with a middle ear infection.

Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media - Treatments

Most middle ear infections will resolve on their own, without antibiotics. A healthy, older child may be treated with pain killers and close followup.

Antibiotics can be given if the symptoms are severe, persist, or worsen. Antibiotics may also be given to children who are young or at risk for complications to help resolve the infection, reduce pain and prevent complications. Once antibiotics are given, the fever and pain should improve or resolve within 48 to 72 hours.

Painless fluid in the middle ear may last for a few weeks or months after an acute infection. It may be necessary to drain the fluid if it fails to drain by itself.

Symptomatic relief of upper respiratory infection symptoms (running nose, blocked nose) with antihistamines or nasal decongestants may be given.

Complications

Complications such as acute mastoiditis, meningitis and brain abscess arising from middle ear infection are now rare because of antibiotics usage.

Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media - Preparing for surgery

Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media - Post-surgery care

Middle Ear Infections - Acute Otitis Media - Other Information

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