Babies with hydronephrosis need kidney ultrasounds and kidney function scans. Sometimes the babies (and the kidney) improve with time without surgery. Generally, a few investigations will be needed over time before it can be known if any operation is required.
Treatment for hydronephrosis depends on the underlying cause; for children diagnosed with PUJO, an operation called a pyeloplasty will be needed if the hydronephrosis causes back pressure on the kidney. This is a major operation, but most often has a very high cure rate and a low chance of any complications.
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