Stones form as a result of urine with a high concentration of certain chemicals (such as calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and others) and a low concentration of substances that stop stone formation (urinary inhibitors such as citrate and magnesium).
Urinary tract infections, kidney disorders such as cystic kidney diseases, and certain metabolic disorders are linked to stone formation.
Calcium oxalate stones may also form in people with chronic inflammation of the bowel or have had an intestinal bypass operation, or ostomy surgery.
Stones occur more frequently in men, and most commonly between 40 and 70 years old. Once you get more than one stone, other stones are likely to develop.
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