In general, treatment is not needed for most cases. If there is an underlying cause, treating the cause will decrease the breast enlargement.
For men with gynaecomastia of unknown cause or have residual gynaecomastia after treatment of the cause, medical or surgical treatment may be considered.
Medical treatment includes drugs such as clomiphene and tamoxifen, which oppose the action of oestrogens. Up to 50 to 80 percent of patients have been reported to achieve partial reduction in breast size with these pharmacologic therapies.
Surgery can remove the amount of breast tissue and the various techniques include reduction mammoplasty, subcutaneous mastectomies with or without liposuction and microdebridement.
In these surgeries, the breast is either partially or totally removed with the preservation of the nipple and overlying skin.
There is no increased risk of breast cancer development in men with gynaecomastia, but the diagnosis of cancer needs to be excluded in their management.
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