A thorough head and neck examination is performed which includes the examination of the oral cavity, the neck and a nasoendoscopy. Physical examination is usually normal, unless there is a lymph node spread in the neck or enlarged liver due to distant spread. An OGD (esophagoduodenoscopy) is performed to visualize the growth and for biopsy.
Endoscopic ultrasound may also be done to determine the depth and local extent of the growth. A Computed Tomography scan (CT) evaluates the extent of the tumour and invasion of the surrounding structures. If the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of cancer, then a CT scan of the thorax and liver is done as part of the staging work-up, looking for distant spread to the lungs or the liver.
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