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Age-related Macular Degeneration

Age-related Macular Degeneration - Diagnosis

The early stages of AMD usually start without symptoms. Only a comprehensive dilated eye examination can detect AMD. The eye examination may include the following:

  • Amsler Grid
    Your ophthalmologist may ask you to look at an Amsler grid. Changes in your central vision may cause the lines in the grid to disappear or appear wavy, a sign of AMD. This is also used to monitor patients at home for progression.

    Normal Vision Amsler Grid - Age-related Macular Degeneration
    Normal Vision


    Vision impaired by Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Amsler Grid
    Vision impaired by Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)



    Hold the Amsler grid below at eye level at a comfortable reading distance. If you wear reading lenses, wear them during this test. Cover one eye at a time and focus on the dot in the centre. If you see wavy or fuzzy lines, or if certain squares are missing or appear blurred, you may be displaying symptoms of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD).
  • Fundus Fluorescein Angiogram (FFA) and Indocyanine Green Angiogram (ICG)
    In this test, a fluorescent dye is injected into a vein in your arm. Pictures are taken as the dye passes through the blood vessels in your eye. This makes it possible to see leaking blood vessels, which occur in the “wet” type of AMD. In rare cases, complications due to the injection can arise, like nausea or more severe allergic reactions.
  • Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
    OCT is similar to ultrasound, except the latter uses sound waves to capture images of living tissues. OCT uses light waves and can capture high-resolution cross-sectional images of any tissues that can be penetrated by light, such as the eyes. After your eyes are dilated, you will be asked to place your head on a chin rest and hold still for several seconds while the images are obtained. The light beam is painless.

Age-related Macular Degeneration - Preparing for surgery

Age-related Macular Degeneration - Post-surgery care

Age-related Macular Degeneration - Other Information

The information provided is not intended as medical advice. Terms of use. Information provided by SingHealth

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