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Age-related Macular Degeneration

Age-related Macular Degeneration - Causes and Risk Factors

What causes AMD?
AMD occurs in “dry” and “wet” forms. 90% of AMD patients suffer from the “dry” form. Dry AMD results in slow progressive loss of central vision. The condition develops as the light-sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down with age.

Wet AMD, also known as exudative or neo-vascular AMD, is caused by the growth of small, abnormal blood vessels under the retina in the macula. Wet AMD usually arises from pre-existing dry AMD.

These abnormal blood vessels leak blood, fluid, lipids and protein, resulting in disruption of the normal structure of the retina. If it is not treated, scar tissue form under the macula and central vision is permanently destroyed. The “wet” form commonly results in advanced visual loss within a short period of time.


What puts me at risk of AMD?  
Your risk increases with:
  • Age. A 1997 study showed that one in four people aged 60 and above suffer from the condition in Singapore
  • A positive family history
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Cardiovascular diseases

Age-related Macular Degeneration - Preparing for surgery

Age-related Macular Degeneration - Post-surgery care

Age-related Macular Degeneration - Other Information

The information provided is not intended as medical advice. Terms of use. Information provided by SingHealth