Alpha-feto protein (AFP)
AFP is an antigen normally produced
in the foetus during its development. It
can also be produced in the foetal liver
that can appear in certain diseases of
adults, such as liver cancer. High levels
of AFP in an adult usually indicates
testicular cancer or liver cancer.
An x-ray of blood vessels injected with
dye. An angiography is a diagnostic test
in which a radiopaque dye is injected
into the bloodstream and x-rays are
then taken. The dye makes the blood
vessels show up on the x-rays, and any
abnormal vessels can be seen. The x-ray
is called an angiogram, or sometimes
Not cancerous. Benign tumours
generally do not spread to tissues
around them or to other parts of the
Inflammation of the colon.
A procedure using freezing
temperature to destroy abnormal
An examination of the bladder and
urethra using a thin, lighted instrument
(called a cystoscope) inserted into the
urethra. Tissue samples can be removed
and examined under a microscope.
Faecal Occult Blood
A test to check for blood in stool.
(Faecal refers to stool; occult means
Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA)
The removal of tissue or fl uid with a
syringe and needle. This procedure
is sometimes called a needle biopsy.
Samples are examined under a
An operation to remove all or part of
Women who are proven BRCA mutation
carriers, untested first-degree relatives
of known BRCA mutation carriers and
those with strong family history and
estimated to have at least 20-25 per
cent lifetime breast cancer risk by risk
assessment models are considered
to have genetic risk for developing
breast cancer. These women have
5-10 increased risk of breast cancer
compared to women without these risk
factors. They frequently present before
the age of 40.
A surgery to remove the uterus and
sometimes, the cervix. When the
uterus and part or all of the cervix
are removed, it is called a total
hysterectomy. When only the uterus
is removed, it is called a partial
The insertion of a thin, lighted tube
(called a laparoscope) through the
abdominal wall to inspect the inside
of the abdomen and to remove tissue
A laser beam is used to destroy the
abnormal cells on the cervix as well
as some skin cancers. The treatment
is very eff ective and the healing is
Loop Electro-Excision Procedure
This is a procedure to remove a
pre-cancer on the cervix in the
prevention of cancer development.
It is performed on an outpatient
basis under local anaesthetic. This
procedure has emerged as one of the
most cost-effective ways of treating
cervical pre-cancers in the prevention
of cervical cancer.
A surgery to remove the tumour and a
small amount of normal tissue around it,
particularly in relation to breast cancer.
Small bean-shaped structures scattered
along the lymphatic vessels, particularly
in the neck, armpit and groin. They filter
the lymph to remove bacteria and other
harmful agents to prevent them from
entering the bloodstream.
Means cancerous. Malignant tumours
can invade and destroy nearby tissues
and spread to other parts of the body.
The surgical removal of the breast.
A Pap smear is a microscopic
examination of cells scraped from the
cervix. It is done to detect cancerous or
precancerous conditions of the cervix
A growth that protrudes from a mucous
Inspection of the lower colon using
a thin, lighted tube called a
sigmoidoscope. Samples of tissue or
cells may be collected for examination
under a microscope. Also called
A surgical procedure to remove a
triangle-shaped slice of tissue. It may
be used to remove tumours and a small
amount of normal tissue around it.
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