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Chronic Lung Disease (Child)

Chronic Lung Disease (Child) - Causes and Risk Factors

Causes of Chronic Lung Disease (Child)

The lungs of premature babies are fragile. In chronic lung disease, the lungs are injured through mechanical ventilation and extra oxygen given to premature babies. Once it is injured, the lung tissue becomes inflamed, breaks down and heals with fibrosis. The diseased lung causes difficulty in breathing and the infant will need more oxygen.

Some causes of lung injury include the following:

  • Premature birth during which babies’ air sacs are not fully developed
  • Low amounts of surfactant, a substance in the lungs that keeps the tiny air sacs open
  • Prolonged oxygen exposure and use of high concentrations of oxygen cause damage to lung tissues
  • Mechanical ventilation; air pressure from breathing machines, and suctioning of the airways damage the cells of the lungs

Risk factors of Chronic Lung Disease (Child)

  • Premature birth at less than 32 weeks of gestation
  • Birth weight of less than 2kg
  • Hyaline membrane disease, an acute respiratory condition that is caused by a lack of surfactant and results in alveolar collapse (collapse of the air sags in the lungs)
  • Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema (PIE), a condition in which air leaks out of the airways into the spaces between the small air sacs of the lungs
  • Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA), a blood vessel connecting the heart and lungs vessels, which normally closes spontaneously in term babies
  • Caucasian, male babies
  • Maternal chorioamnionitis (inflammation in the placenta)
  • Family history of asthma

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Chronic Lung Disease (Child) - Other Information

The information provided is not intended as medical advice. Terms of use. Information provided by SingHealth

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