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Medical Conditions and Treatments

Welcome to the Singapore Health Services - SingHealth "Health Glossary", a listing of useful information on key health and medical conditions and treatments.

A treasure trove of useful information from our experts, this is your trusted guide to safeguarding your health and your family's.

You will find information on various health conditions and medical treatments as well as surgery treatment options, sourced from our Hospitals - Singapore General Hospital, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, and National Speciality Centres for Cancer, Heart, Neuroscience, Eye and Dental - across the SingHealth group. From overviews of the health condition, to disease risk factors, signs and symptoms , preventive steps, treatment options as well as how to manage your health condition at home, we hope you find the write-ups useful.

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Find a Condition from our A-Z list

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Abdominal Pain
Abdominal Pain (Child)
Abdominal Sacropolpopexy
Abdominal Surgery
Abnormal Heart Rhythm / Arrhythmia
Abscess - Dental
Acoustic Neuroma (Acoustic Schwannoma)
Acute Appendicitis (Child)
Acute Laryngotracheobrontis (ALTB) or Croup (Child)
Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD)
Adult Hydrocephalus
Aesthetic Eyelid Surgery
Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Allergic Rhinitis
Allergies (Child)
Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)
Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring
Ambulatory Blood Pressure Watch Monitoring
Ambulatory ECG - Holter Monitoring
Anal Abscess, Anal Fistula
Anal Fissure
Anal Itch (Pruritus Ani)
Anal Surgery
Anal Warts
Antenatal Depression
Anterior Curiate Ligament Reconstruction
Antibiotics (Child) 
Aortic Dissection
Aphthous Ulcer
Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
Asthma (Child)
Atrial Septal Defect
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Child)
Atypical Toothache
Auditory Verbal Therapy
Autism (Child)
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Child) 
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Bad Breath (Halitosis)
Barium Studies
Bedwetting (Child)
Behaviour (Child)
Birth Control - Hysteroscopic Sterilisation
Birth Control - Intrauterine-Contraceptive Device (IUCD)
Birth Control - Laparoscopic Bilateral Tubal Ligation
Bisphosphonates and its Dental Implications
Bladder Cancer
Bleeding Tendency
Blepharitis (Eyelid Infections /Styes)
Bonding (Child)
Bone Mineral Density Scan (DEXA)
Bone Scan
Bowel Incontinence
Brain Cancer
Brain Scan
Brain Tumour and Surgery
Brain Tumour Biopsy

Breast Cancer

Breastfeeding - For Working Mothers
Breastfeeding - Give Your Child a Headstart
Bronchiolitis (Child)
Brugada Syndrome
Burch Colposuspension
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Cancer (Child)
Cancer Pain
Cardiac Arrest (Sudden Cardiac Death)
Cardiac Catheterisation
Cardiac Computed Tomography (CT)
Cardiac Pacemaker Implantation
Caries / Tooth Decay
Caries Risk Assessment
Carotid Endarterectomy
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Catheter Ablation
Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
Cerebral Aneurysm
Cervical Spondylosis
Cervix Cancer (Cervical Cancer)
Chest Wall Diseases
Chest X-Ray
Childhood Myopia
Circumcision (Child)
Cholesterol Management
Chronic Constipation
Chronic Lung Disease (Child)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic Post-surgical Pain
Cleft Lip and Palate
Clubfoot (Child)
Cochlear Implant
Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy
Colic (Baby)
Colorectum Cancer (Colorectal Cancer)
Colposuspension (Incontinence Surgery)
Computed Tomography (CT)
Cone-Biopsy/ Leep of the Cervix
Confidence (Child)
Congenital Muscular Torticollis (Baby)
Congenital Talipes Equino Varus (Club Foot) (Baby)
Congenital Hip Dislocation (Baby)
Contact Microscopic Endoscopy
Convulsion without Fever (Child)
Corneal Infections
Coronary Angiography
Coronary Angioplasty
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
Coronary Artery Disease/Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary Atherectomy
Coronary Stent Implantation
Cough & Cold (Child)
Cracked Tooth
Crohn's Disease
Croup (Child)
Crowns & Bridges
Crying (Baby)
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Day Surgery (Child)
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Decompressive Craniectomy
Dengue Fever (Child)
Dental Implants
Development (Child)
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (Child)
Diabetes Management
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetic Retinopathy
Diarrhoea (Child)
Dicopac Test
Diplopia (Double Vision)
Discoloured Teeth
Diverticular Disease
Donor Insemination Programme
Droopy Eyelids (Ptosis)
Dry Eyes
Dyspepsia (Peptic Ulcer Disease)
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Ear (Foreign Objects) (Child)
Ear Infections (Child)
Ear Otitis Media (Child)
Early Childhood Caries
ECG or Electrocardiogram
Eczema (Child)
Emergency (Child)
Endodontic Surgery
Entropion (Inverted Eyelids)
Epiblepharon (Inverted Eyelashes)
Epidural Lysis of Adhesions
Epidural Steroid Injection
Epiretinal Membrane (Macular Pucker)
Erectile Dysfunction in Cardiovascular Disease
Exercise - Arthritis of Knees
Exercise - Back & Neck Pain
Exercise - Chronic Lung Disease
Exercise - Diabetes
Exercise - Osteoporosis
Exercise - Stress Incontinence
Exercise - Vertigo
Exercise Equipment
Exercise - Preparation
Exercise Stress Test
External Ventricular Drain
Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenator (ECMO)
Eye Infections (Red Eyes)
Eyelid Infections (Blepharitis /Styes)
Eyelid Twitches (Spasms)
Eye Socket Reconstruction
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Facial Nerve Pain (Neuralgias)
Facial Pain
Facet Joint Syndrome and Treatment
Febrile Fits (Child)
Fever (Child)
Floaters and Flashes
Food & Nutrition - Burping
Food & Nutrition - Fussy Eaters / Food Fads
Food & Nutrition - Meals
Food & Nutrition - Vegetables
Food & Nutrition - Vitamin Supplements
Food & Nutrition - Weaning
Foot and Ankle
Functional Neurosurgery
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Gallbladder Scan
Gastroenteritis (Food Poisoning)
Gastrointestinal Tract
Gum Infections
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Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (Child) 
Head Injury
Head and Neck Surgery
Headache in Children (Child)
Hearing (Child)
Hearing Aids
Hearing Tests
Heart (Child)
Heart Attack (Chest Pain)
Heart Bypass Surgery (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting - CABG)
Heart Failure
Heart Scans
Heart Transplantation
Helicobacter Pylori Breath Test
Hemorrhoids (Piles)
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Hernias & Hydrocoele (Child)
High Blood Pressure/Hypertension Management
High Fibre Diet
Hip Osteoarthritis
Hip Surgery
Hyperopia (Long-sightedness)
Hypothyroidism (Child)
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Impacted Wisdom Tooth (Infections)
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrilator (ICD)
Incontinence Surgery (Colposuspension)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inguinal Hernia (Child)
Injuries (Child)
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Intracranial Pressure Monitor
Intrathecal Drug Delivery
Intravenous Urography
Inverted Eyelids (Entropion)
Inverted Eyelashes (Epiblepharon)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy
In-Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) / Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm (ICSI)
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Jaundice (Baby)
Jaw Joint / TMJ Surgery
Jaw Surgery
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Kidney Cancer
Kidney Failure
Kidney Scans
Kidney Transplant
Knee Injuries
Knee Injuries - Cartilage Injuries
Knee Injuries - Knee Cap Injury
Knee Injuries - Ligament Injuries
Knee Injuries - Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Knee Injuries - Tendon Injuries and Disorders
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"Lao Hua" (Presbyopia)
Larynx Cancer
Lazy Eye (Amblyopia)
Lead Extraction
Learning (Child)
Liver Cancer
Living With Cancer
Long-sightedness (Hyperopia)
Low Back Pain
Low Back Pain (Spine Care)
Lumbar Disc Replacement Surgery
Lumbar Herniated Discectomy
Lumbar Puncture
Lung Cancer (SGH)
Lung Cancer (NCCS)
Lung Scan
Lung Transplantation
Lymphoma Cancer
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Macular Hole
Macular Pucker (Epiretinal Membrane)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Male Infertility
Malocclusion (Dental) 
Mandibular Advancement Splints (MAS)
Maze Surgery
Mechanical Heart Assist Device
Medical Emergencies
Metastatic Brain Tumours
Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS)
MIS - General Surgery
Breast Biopsy and MIS Procedures
Gastrointestinal MIS Procedures
- Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux Surgery
- Laparoscopic Appendicectomy
- Bariatric (Weight Loss) Surgery
- Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery
- Laparoscopic Hernia Repair
- Laparoscopic Liver Surgery
- Other Gastrointestinal MIS Procedures
Thoracic MIS Procedures
Vascular MIS Procedures
- Endovascular Aortic Stent Grafting and Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery
- Percutaneous Transluminal Arterioplasty (PTA) and Stenting
Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedures
Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS)
MIS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G)
MIS - Orthopaedics
Spine MIS Procedures
MIS - Neurosurgery
MIS - Otolaryngology (Ear, Nose Throat)
MIS - Urology
MIS - Colorectal Surgery
Multiple Myeloma
Muscle Diseases
Musculoskeletal Disorders and Office Ergonomics
Musculoskeletal Tumours
Myasthenia Gravis
Myopia (Child)
Myopic Maculopathy
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Nasopharynx Cancer (Nasopharyngeal Cancer or Nose Cancer)
Neck Pain
Neuropathic (Nerve) Pain Syndrome
Nose (Child)
Nose - Virtual Tour
Nuclear Cardiology
Nutrition During Cancer Therapy
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Obesity Exercise (Child)
Obesity Management
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Obstructive Sleep Apnea - The Dental & Maxillofacial Management
Ocular Inflammation and Immunology
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
Oesophageal Cancer
Office Ergonomics
Off-Pump / Beating Heart Surgery
Optic Neuritis
Orbital Disorders
Orthodontics - About Braces
Orthodontics - After Braces Always Retainers
Orthodontics - Important Information for Orthodontic Patients
Orthodontics - Preparing for Braces
Orthognathic Surgery
Orthopaedic (Child)
Orthopaedic - Back Pain & Spine-Deformity (Child)
Orthopaedic - Limb Length Discrepancy (LLD) & Deformities Child)
Orthopaedic - Sports Injuries (Child)
Osteoarthritis - Knee Pain
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrom (OHSS)
Ovarian Tumours
Overactive Bladder
Overweight (Child)
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Paediatric Dentistry - Caring for your Infant's Teeth
Paediatric Dentistry - Early Childhood Caries (ECC)
Paediatric Dentistry - Preventing Decay with Sealants
Paediatric Dentistry - Your Child's Visit to the Dentist
Pancreas Cancer (Pancreatic Cancer)
Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Patent Foramen Ovale
Pelvic Floor Exercises
Pelvic Floor Repair
Percutaneous Aortic Valve Replacement (PAVR)
Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Valvuloplasty
Perinatal Depression
Periodontal Disease & General Health
Periodontal (Gum) Disease
Periodontal Surgery
Periodontal Surgery / Gum Surgery
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Peripheral Neuropathy
Physiotherapy for OveractiveBladder
Physiotherapy for Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Physiotherapy for Stress Urinary Incontinence
Pilonidal Disease
Pituitary Tumours
Play (Child)
Pneumonia (Child)
Post-injury Chronic Pain
Postnatal Depression
Pregnancy - Planning for Baby - Eat Right
Pregnancy - Planning for Baby - Smoking and Pregnancy
Pregnancy - Planning for Baby - Thalassaemia
Pregnancy - During Pregnancy - Care During Pregnancy
Pregnancy - During Pregnancy - Diet and Your Pregnancy
Pregnancy - During Pregnancy - Discomforts
Pregnancy - During Pregnancy - Ectopic Pregnancy
Pregnancy - During Pregnancy - Facts and Fallacies Female
Pregnancy-During-Pregnancy - Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
Pregnancy - During Pregnancy - Labour and Delivery
Pregnancy - During Pregnancy - Miscarriage
Pregnancy - During Pregnancy - Pain Relief in Labour Female
Pregnancy - During Pregnancy - Problems
Pregnancy - During Pregnancy - Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section
Pregnancy - Tests to Take - Amniocentesis Female
Pregnancy - Tests to Take - Chorionic Villus Sampling
Pregnancy - Tests to Take - Fetal-Blood Sampling
Pregnancy - Tests to Take First - Trimester Screening
Pregnancy - Tests to Take - HIV
Pregnancy - Tests to Take - Maternal Serum Screening
Pregnancy - After - Adapting to Baby
Pregnancy - After - Going Home
Prepare (Child)
Presbyopia ("Lao Hua")
Preventing Falls
Primary Pulmonary Hypertension
Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy
Prostate Cancer
Ptosis (Droopy Eyelids)
Pulmonary Stenosis
Pulpitis (Toothache)
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Radiation Therapy
Radical Hysterectomy
Radiofrequency Lesioning (Thermoablation)
Radioiodine Treatment
Radiotherapy and its Dental Implications
Rectal Prolapse
Red Eyes (Eye Infections)
Retinal Detachment
Retinal Tears
Retinal Vascular Disorders
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Risk and Evaluation Prevention (REAP) Clinic
Root Canal Treatment
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Sacroiliac Joint Pain and Treatment
Sacrospinous Fixation
Same Day Admission Surgery (Child)
Sarcoma Cancer (Sarcomas)
Senses (Child)
Shoulder & Elbow Injuries
Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Frozen-Shoulder
Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Rotator-Cuff
Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Stiff Elbow
Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Tennis Elbow Lateral Epicondylitis
Sibling Rivalry (Child)
Signal-Averaged ECG (SA ECG)
Skin Cancer
Skin Infections (Child)
Skull Base
Sleep (Child)
Sleep Apnoea
Sleep Disorders
Smile Aesthetics: Aspects of an Aesthetically-Pleasing Smile
Smile Aesthetics: Teeth Whitening
Snoring (Child)
Spasms (Eyelid Twitches)
Spine and Spinal Disorders
Spine & Peripheral Nerve
Spine Surgery
Squint or Strabismus (Child)
Stomach (Gastric) Cancer
Stomach Scan
Stress Echocardiogram
Stress Incontinence
Stress Management
Stress Urinary Incontinence
Sudden Cardiac Death
Superovulation and Intrauterine Insemination (SO-ISI)
Swallowing Difficulties
Sympathetic Blocks
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Talk (Child)
Tearing Disorders
Teeth (Baby)
Teeth Whitening
Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorder
Testicular Cancer
Tetralogy of Fallot
Thalassaemia (Child)
Throat (Foreign Objects) (Child)
Throat - Virtual Tour
Thyroid Disorders
Thyroid Disorders - Hyperthyroidism
Thyroid Disorders - Hypothyroidism
Thyroid Eye Disease (TED)
Thyroid Scan
Thyroid Nodules
Tonsils & Adenoids (Child)
Tooth Decay
Tooth Sensitivity
Total Abdominal Hysterectomy
Transoeophageal Echocardiogram (TEE)
Transtelephonic ECG
Travelling With Your Child
Trigeminal Neuralgia (Facial Pain)
Tuberculosis (Child)
TVT / TVT-O Continence Surgery
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Ulcerative Colitis
Ultrasound Scan
Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) (Baby)
Upright Tilt Test
Urinary Incontinence
Urinary Tract Infection
Utero Vaginal Prolapse
Uterus Cancer or Uterine Cancer (Endometrium Cancer)
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Vaccinations (Child)
Vaginal Hysterectomy
Valve Repair / Replacement
Valvular Heart Disease
Vascular Investigation
Ventricular Peritoneal Shunt
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) Pleurodesis
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) Sympathectomy for Sweaty Palms
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) Thymectomy
Viral Myocarditis
Vitreomacular Traction
Voice Check
Voice Hygiene
Voiding Disorders Women
Vomitting (Child)
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Walking (Baby)
What to do before your Procedure
Wisdom Teeth (Impacted)
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