Conditions and Treatments 
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Medical Conditions and Treatments

Welcome to our Conditions and Treatments section. 

You will find information on various health conditions and medical treatments as well as surgery treatment options, sourced from our Hospitals - Singapore General Hospital, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, and National Speciality Centres for Cancer, Heart, Neuroscience, Eye and Dental - across the SingHealth group.
From overviews of the health condition, to disease risk factors, signs and symptoms , preventive steps, treatment options as well as how to manage your health condition at home, we hope you find the write-ups useful.


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A
AA - Terms of Use / Disclaimer
Abdominal Pain
Abdominal Pain (Child)
Abdominal Sacropolpopexy
Abdominal Surgery
Abnormal Blood Tests
Abnormal Heart Rhythm / Arrhythmia
Abscess - Dental
Acoustic Neuroma (Acoustic Schwannoma)
Acute Appendicitis (Child)
Acute Bronchitis in Children
Acute Laryngotracheobrontis (ALTB) or Croup (Child)
Acute Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis
Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD)
Adult Hydrocephalus
Aesthetic Eyelid Surgery
Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Allergic Rhinitis
Allergies (Child)
Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)
Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring
Ambulatory Blood Pressure Watch Monitoring
Ambulatory ECG - Holter Monitoring
Anaemia
Anal Abscess and Fistula
Anal Fissure
Anal Itch (Pruritus Ani)
Anal Surgery
Anal Warts
Aneurysm
Antenatal Depression
Anterior Curiate Ligament Reconstruction
Antibiotics (Child)
Aortic Dissection
Aphthous Ulcer
Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)
Arthritis
Arthroscopy
Asthma
Asthma (Child)
Astigmatism
Atrial Septal Defect (Child)
Atrial Septal Defect
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Child)
Atypical Toothache
Auditory Verbal Therapy
Autism (Child)
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Child)
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B
Bad Breath (Halitosis)
Barium Studies
Bedwetting
Bedwetting (Child)
Behaviour (Child)
Behavioural Insomnia in Childhood
  - Sleep Onset Association Disorder
  - Limit-Setting Sleep Disorder
Benign Prostatic Enlargement
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Birth Control - Hysteroscopic Sterilisation
Birth Control - Intrauterine-Contraceptive Device (IUCD)
Birth Control - Laparoscopic Bilateral Tubal Ligation
Bisphosphonates and its Dental Implications
Bladder Cancer
Bladder Cancer Surgery
Bleeding Tendency
Blepharitis (Eyelid Infections /Styes)
Bonding (Child)
Bone Mineral Density Scan (DEXA)
Bone Scan
Bowel Incontinence
Braces
Brain Aneurysm
Brain Cancer
Brain Scan
Brain Tumour and Surgery
Brain Tumour Biopsy

Breast Cancer

Breastfeeding - For Working Mothers
Breastfeeding - Give Your Child a Headstart
Bronchiolitis (Child)
Brugada Syndrome
Burch Colposuspension
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C
Cancer
Cancer (Child)
Cancer Pain
Cardiac Arrest (Sudden Cardiac Death)
Cardiac Catheterisation
Cardiac Computed Tomography (CT)
Cardiac Pacemaker Implantation
Cardiac Tamponade
Caries / Tooth Decay
Caries Risk Assessment
Carotid Endarterectomy
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Cataracts
Catheter Ablation
Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
Cerebral Aneurysm
Cervical Spondylosis
Cervix Cancer (Cervical Cancer)
Cervical Cancer Surgery
Change in Bowel Habit
Chemotherapy
Chest Wall Diseases
Chest X-Ray
Childhood Myopia
Cholesterol
Cholesterol Management
Chronic Back Pain
Chronic Constipation
Chronic Lung Disease (Child)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Chronic Post-surgical Pain
Chronic Subdural Haematoma
Circadian Rhythm: Coping with Jet Lag
Circadian Rhythm: Coping with Shift Work
Circumcision
Circumcision (Child)
Cleft Lip and Palate
Clomid
Clubfoot (Child)
Cochlear Implant
Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy
Colic (Baby)
Colonoscopy
Colorectal Cancer
Colorectum Cancer (Colorectal Cancer)
Colposuspension (Incontinence Surgery)
Computed Tomography (CT)
Cone-Biopsy / Leep of the Cervix
Confidence (Child)
Congenital Hip Dislocation (Baby)
Congenital Muscular Torticollis (Baby)
Congenital Talipes Equino Varus (Club Foot)
Contact Microscopic Endoscopy
Convulsion without Fever (Child)
Corneal Infections
Coronary Angiography
Coronary Angioplasty
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
Coronary Artery Disease/Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary Atherectomy
Coronary Stent Implantation
Cough & Cold (Child)
Cracked Tooth
Crohn's Disease
Croup (Child)
Crowns & Bridges
Crying (Baby)
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D
Day Surgery (Child)
Decompressive Craniectomy
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Dementia
Dengue Fever (Child)
Dental Implants
Dentures
Depression
Development (Child)
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (Child)
Diabetes Management
Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetic Retinopathy
Dialysis
Diarrhoea (Child)
Diplopia (Double Vision)
Discoloured Teeth
Diverticular Disease
Donor Insemination Programme
Droopy Eyelids (Ptosis)
Dry Eyes
Dyspepsia (Peptic Ulcer Disease)
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E
Ear Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media
Ear (Foreign Objects) (Child)
Ear Infections (Child)
Ear Otitis Externa
Ear Acute Otitis Media
Ear Otitis Media (Child)
Ear Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)
Ear Pinna Infection
Earwax In Children
Early Childhood Caries
Echocardiogram
ECG or Electrocardiogram
Eczema (Child)
Emergency (Child)
Endodontic Surgery
Entropion (Inverted Eyelids)
Epiblepharon (Inverted Eyelashes)
Epidural Lysis of Adhesions
Epidural Steroid Injection
Epilepsy
Epiretinal Membrane (Macular Pucker)
Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile Dysfunction in Cardiovascular Disease
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
External Ventricular Drain
Extra-Corporeal Membrane Oxygenator (ECMO)
Eye Infections (Red Eyes)
Eyelid Infections (Blepharitis /Styes)
Eyelid Twitches (Spasms)
Eye Socket Reconstruction
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F
Facet Joint Syndrome and Treatment
Facial Nerve Pain (Neuralgias)
Facial Pain
Fatty Liver
Febrile Fits (Child)
Fever (Child)
Fillings
Floaters and Flashes
Food & Nutrition - Burping
Food & Nutrition - Fussy Eaters / Food Fads
Food & Nutrition - Meals
Food & Nutrition - Vegetables
Food & Nutrition - Vitamin Supplements
Food & Nutrition - Weaning
Foot and Ankle
Functional Neurosurgery
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G
Gallbladder Scan
Gallstones
Gastric Cancer
Gastroenteritis (Food Poisoning)
Gastrointestinal Tract
Gastro-oesophageal Reflux (GERD)
Gingivitis
Glaucoma
Glue Ear - Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)
Gout
Gum Infections
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H
Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (Child)
Headaches
Headache in Children (Child)
Head and Neck Cancer
Head and Neck Surgery
Head Injury
Head Injury (Child)
Hearing (Child)
Hearing Loss
Hearing Tests
Heart (Child)
Heart - How the Heart Works (Child)
Heart Attack (Chest Pain)
Heart Bypass Surgery (Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting - CABG)
Heart Failure
Heart Scans
Heart Transplantation
Helicobacter Pylori Breath Test
Hemophilia
Hemorrhoids (Piles)
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Hernias & Hydrocoele (Child)
High Blood Pressure / Hypertension Management
High Fibre Diet
Hip Osteoarthritis
Hip Surgery
Hole in the Heart (Child)
Hyperopia (Long-sightedness)
Hypertension
Hypothyroidism (Child)
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I
Impacted Wisdom Tooth (Infections)
Implantable Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Implantation
Incontinence Surgery (Colposuspension)
Infertility Treatment
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inguinal Hernia (Child)
Injuries (Child)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGID)
Insomnia
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Intracranial Pressure Monitor
Intrathecal Drug Delivery
Intravenous Urography
In-Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) / Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm (ICSI)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Inverted Eyelids (Entropion)
Inverted Eyelashes (Epiblepharon)
Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy
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J
Jaundice
Jaundice (Baby)
Jaw Joint / TMJ Surgery
Jaw Surgery
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K
Kidney Cancer
Kidney Cancer Surgery
Kidney Failure
Kidney Scans
Kidney Stones
Kidney Swelling - Hydronephrosis
Kidney Transplant
Knee Injuries
Knee Injuries - Cartilage Injuries
Knee Injuries - Knee Cap Injury
Knee Injuries - Ligament Injuries
Knee Injuries - Osteoarthritis of the Knee
Knee Injuries - Tendon Injuries and Disorders
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L
"Lao Hua" (Presbyopia)
Laryngopharyngeal Reflux
Larynx Cancer
Lazy Eye (Amblyopia)
Lead Extraction
Learning (Child)
Liver Cancer
Liver Cirrhosis
Liver Transplant
Liver Tumours
Living With Cancer
Long-sightedness (Hyperopia)
Low Back Pain
Low Back Pain (Spine Care)
Lumbar Disc Replacement Surgery
Lumbar Herniated Discectomy
Lumbar Puncture
Lung Cancer
Lung Scan
Lung Transplantation
Lymphoedema
Lymphoma Cancer
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M
Macular Hole
Macular Pucker (Epiretinal Membrane)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Male Infertility
Malocclusion (Dental)
Mammography
Mandibular Advancement Splints (MAS)
Maze Surgery
Mechanical Heart Assist Device
Medical Emergencies
Meningiomas
Menopause
Metastatic Brain Tumours
Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS)
MIS - General Surgery
Breast Biopsy and MIS Procedures
Gastrointestinal MIS Procedures
- Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux Surgery
- Laparoscopic Appendicectomy
- Bariatric (Weight Loss) Surgery
- Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery
- Laparoscopic Hernia Repair
- Laparoscopic Liver Surgery
- Other Gastrointestinal MIS Procedures
Thoracic MIS Procedures
Vascular MIS Procedures
- Endovascular Aortic Stent Grafting and Laparoscopic Aortic Surgery
- Percutaneous Transluminal Arterioplasty (PTA) and Stenting
Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Procedures
Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS)
MIS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G)
MIS - Orthopaedics
Arthroscopy
Spine MIS Procedures
MIS - Neurosurgery
MIS - Otolaryngology (Ear, Nose Throat)
MIS - Urology
MIS - Colorectal Surgery
Multiple Myeloma
Muscle Diseases
Musculoskeletal Disorders and Office Ergonomics
Musculoskeletal Tumours
Myasthenia Gravis
Myopia (Short-sightedness)
Myopia (Child)
Myopic Maculopathy
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N
Nasal Polyps
Nasopharynx Cancer (Nasopharyngeal Cancer or Nose Cancer)
Neck Pain
Neuro-oncology
Neuropathic (Nerve) Pain Syndrome
Neurostimulation
Neurotrauma
Neurovascular
Nose (Child)
Nose - Virtual Tour
Nosebleeds in Children
Nuclear Cardiology
Nutrition During Cancer Therapy
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O
Obesity Exercise (Child)
Obesity Management
Obstructive Jaundice
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Children
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea - Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Obstructive Sleep Apnea - The Dental & Maxillofacial Management
Ocular Inflammation and Immunology
Oesophageal Cancer
Oesophagus Cancer
Office Ergonomics
Off-Pump / Beating Heart Surgery
Optic Neuritis
Orbital Disorders
Orthodontics
Orthodontics - About Braces
Orthodontics - After Braces Always Retainers
Orthodontics - Important Information for Orthodontic Patients
Orthodontics - Preparing for Braces
Orthognathic Surgery
Orthopaedic (Child)
Orthopaedic - Back Pain & Spine-Deformity (Child)
Orthopaedic - Limb Length Discrepancy (LLD) & Deformities Child)
Orthopaedic - Sports Injuries (Child)
Osteoarthritis - Knee Pain
Osteoporosis
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian Cancer Surgery
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrom (OHSS)
Overactive Bladder
Overweight (Child)
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P
Paediatric Dentistry - Caring for your Infant's Teeth
Paediatric Dentistry - Early Childhood Caries (ECC)
Paediatric Dentistry - Preventing Decay with Sealants
Paediatric Dentistry - Your Child's Visit to the Dentist
Pain Disorders Surgery
Pancreas Cancer (Pancreatic Cancer)
Pancreatic Tumours
Pap Smear Screening and Treatment for Pre-Cancer of the Cervix
Parasomnias in Children
Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Patent Foramen Ovale
Pelvic Floor Disorders
Pelvic Floor Exercises
Pelvic Floor Repair
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)
Penis Abnormality - Hypospadias
Percutaneous Aortic Valve Replacement (PAVR)
Percutaneous Transluminal Balloon Valvuloplasty
Perinatal Depression
Periodontal Disease & General Health
Periodontal (Gum) Disease
Periodontal Surgery
Periodontal Surgery / Gum Surgery
Periodontitis
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
Peripheral Arterial Disease
Peripheral Neuropathy
Per Rectal Bleeding
Pes Planus (Flexible Flat Feet)
Physiotherapy for OveractiveBladder
Physiotherapy for Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Physiotherapy for Stress Urinary Incontinence
Pilonidal Disease
Pituitary Tumours
Play (Child)
Pneumonia
Pneumonia (Child)
Polyps
Post-injury Chronic Pain
Postnatal Depression
Plagiocephaly
Planning for Baby - Thalassaemia
Planning for Baby - Eat Right
Planning for Baby - Smoking and Pregnancy
Pregnancy - Care During Pregnancy
Pregnancy - Count to Ten Fetal Movement
Pregnancy - Diet and Your Pregnancy
Pregnancy - Discomforts
Pregnancy - Ectopic Pregnancy
Pregnancy - Facts and Fallacies Female
Pregnancy - Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
Labour and Delivery
Pregnancy - Miscarriage
Pregnancy - Pain Relief in Labour Female
Pregnancy - Problems
Pregnancy - Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section
Pregnancy Tests - Amniocentesis Female
Pregnancy Tests - Chorionic Villus Sampling
Pregnancy Tests - Fetal-Blood Sampling
Pregnancy Tests - First Trimester Screening
Pregnancy Tests - HIV
Pregnancy Tests - Maternal Serum Screening
After Pregnancy - Adapting to Baby
After Pregnancy - Going Home
After Pregnancy - Skin-to-Skin Contact with Baby
Prepare (Child)
Presbyopia ("Lao Hua")
Preventing Falls
Primary Pulmonary Hypertension
Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy
Prostate Cancer
Prostate Cancer Surgery
Pterygium
Ptosis (Droopy Eyelids)
Pulmonary Stenosis
Pulpitis (Toothache)
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Q
-
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R
Radiation Therapy
Radical Hysterectomy
Radiofrequency Lesioning (Thermoablation)
Radioiodine Treatment
Radiotherapy and its Dental Implications
Rectal Prolapse
Red Eyes (Eye Infections)
Retinal Detachment
Retinal Tears
Retinal Vascular Disorders
Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rhinitis
Risk and Evaluation Prevention (REAP) Clinic
Root Canal Treatment
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S
Sacroiliac Joint Pain and Treatment
Sacrospinous Fixation
Same Day Admission Surgery (Child)
Sarcoma Cancer (Sarcomas)
Scoliosis
Sealants
Senses (Child)
Shoulder & Elbow Injuries
Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Frozen-Shoulder
Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Rotator-Cuff
Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Stiff Elbow
Shoulder & Elbow Injuries - Tennis Elbow Lateral Epicondylitis
Sibling Rivalry (Child)
Signal-Averaged ECG (SA ECG)
Sinusitis
Skin Cancer
Skin Infections (Child)
Skull Base
Sleep Advice for Parents of Newborns and Infants
Sleep (Child)
Sleep Deprivation
Sleep-disordered Breathing and Snoring
Sleep Disorders
Sleep is Important
Sleep Movement Disorders
Sleep Physiology
Sleep Requirements in Children and Good Sleep Hygiene and Practices
Sleepwalking
Sleepy Driving
Smile Aesthetics: Aspects of an Aesthetically-Pleasing Smile
Smile Aesthetics: Improving Your Smile
Smile Aesthetics: Teeth Whitening
Snoring (Child)
Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA)
Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) Surgery
Snoring In Children
Spasms (Eyelid Twitches)
Spine
Spine and Spinal Disorders
Spine & Peripheral Nerve
Spine Surgery
Spondyloarthritis
Squint or Strabismus (Child)
Stoma
Stomach (Gastric) Cancer
Stomach Scan
Stones in the Bile Duct
Stress Echocardiogram
Stress Incontinence
Stress Management
Stress Urinary Incontinence
Stroke
Sudden Cardiac Death
Superovulation and Intrauterine Insemination (SO-ISI)
Swallowing Difficulties
Sweaty Palms (Palmar Hyperhidrosis)
Sympathetic Blocks
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T
Talk (Child)
Tearing Disorders
Teeth (Baby)
Teething
Teeth Whitening
Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorder
Testicular Cancer
Tetralogy of Fallot
Thalassaemia (Child)
Throat (Foreign Objects) (Child)
Throat - Virtual Tour
Thyroid Disorders
Thyroid Disorders - Hyperthyroidism
Thyroid Disorders - Hypothyroidism
Thyroid Eye Disease (TED)
Thyroid Nodules
Thyroid Scan
Tinnitus
Tonsils & Adenoids (Child)
Tooth Avulsion
Tooth Decay
Tooth Sensitivity
Toothaches
Total Abdominal Hysterectomy
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)
Transoesophageal Echocardiogram (TEE)
Transtelephonic ECG
Travelling With Your Child
Trigeminal Neuralgia (Facial Pain)
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (Child)
TVT / TVT-O Continence Surgery
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U
Ulcerative Colitis
Ultrasound Scan
Undescended Testicles
Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) (Baby)
Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery
Upright Tilt Test
Urinary Incontinence
Urinary Incontinence Surgery
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infection (Child)
Utero Vaginal Prolapse
Uterus Cancer or Uterine Cancer (Endometrium Cancer)
Uterus Cancer Surgery
Uveitis
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V
Vaccinations (Child)
Vaginal Hysterectomy
Valve Repair / Replacement
Valvular Heart Disease
Vascular Investigation
Ventricular Peritoneal Shunt
Ventricular Septal Defect (Child)
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) Pleurodesis
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) Sympathectomy for Sweaty Palms
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) Thymectomy
Viral Hepatitis
Viral Myocarditis
Vitreomacular Traction
Voice Check
Voice Disorders - Acute and Chronic Laryngitis
Voice Disorders - Muscle Tension Dysphonia
Voice Disorders - Vocal Fold Paralysis
Voice Disorders - Vocal Nodules, Polyps, Cysts and Tumours
Voice Hygiene
Voiding Disorders Women
Vomitting (Child)
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W
Walking (Baby)
What to do before your Procedure
Wisdom Teeth (Impacted)
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Syndrome
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X
-
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Y
Young Onset Cognitive Impairment (YOCI)
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Z
-
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